Numerical modeling of coanda effect in a novel propulsive system

S Das, M Abdollahzadeh, J Pascoa, A Dumas, M Trancossi


Coanda effect (adhesion of jet flow over curved surface) is fundamental characteristics of jet flow. In the present paper, we carried out numerical simulations to investigate Coanda flow over a curved surface and its application in a newly proposed Propulsive system "A.C.H.E.O.N" (Aerial Coanda High Efficiency Orienting jet Nozzle) which supports thrust vectoring. The ACHEON system is presently being proposed for propelling a new V/STOL airplane in European Union. This system is based on cumulative effects of three physical effects such as (1) High speed jet mixing speeds (2) Coanda effect control by electrostatic fields (3) Coanda effect adhesion of an high speed jet to a convex surface. The performance of this nozzle can be enhanced by increasing the jet deflection angle of synthetic jet over the Coanda surface. This newly proposed nozzle has wide range of applications. It can be used in industrial sector such as plasma spray gun and for direct injection in combustion chamber to enhance the efficiency of the combustion chamber. Also, we studied the effect of Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators on A.C.H.E.O.N system. Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators are active control devices for controlling boundary layer and to delay the flow separation over any convex surfaces. Computations were performed under subsonic condition. Two dimensional CFD calculations were carried out using Reynolds averaged Navier stokes equations (RANS). A numerical method based on finite volume formulation (FVM) was used. SST k-ω model was considered to model turbulent flow inside nozzle. DBD model was used to model the plasma. Moreover, a body force treatment was devised to model the effect of plasma and its coupling with the fluid. This preliminary result shows that, the presence of plasma near Coanda surface accelerates the flow and delays the separation and enhances the efficiency of the nozzle.

Full Text:



ACHEON, "Acheon project," 2013. [Online]. Available:

L. N. Cattafesta III, M. Sheplak: Actuators for Active Flow Control. Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, 43(2011), 247-272. CrossRef

M. Gad-El-Hak, Flow Control: Passive, Active, and Reactive Flow Management. New York: CambridgeUniversity Press, 2000.

Thomas C. Corke, C. Lon Enloe, Stephen P. Wilkinson: Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Actuators for Flow Control. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 42(2010), 505-29. CrossRef

D Caruana: Plasmas for aerodynamic control. Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion, 52(2010), 124045. CrossRef

G. Touchard: Plasma actuators for aeronautics applications - State of art review-. International Journal of Plasma Environmental Science and Technology, 2(2008).

R. Hanson, P. Lavoie, A. Naguib, J. Morrison: Transient growth instability cancellation by a plasma actuator array. Experiments in Fluids, 49(2010)1339-1348. CrossRef

T. Corke, M. Post, D. Orlov: SDBD plasma enhanced aerodynamics: concepts, optimization and applications. Progress in Aerospace Sciences,43(2007)212-217.

D. M. Orlov, T. Apker, C. He, H. Othman, T. C. Corke: Modeling and Experiment of Leading Edge Separation Control Using SDBD Plasma Actuators. in AIAA 45th Aerospace Sciences Meeting AIAA paper No. 2007-0877, Reno, Nevada, 8-11 January 2007.

D. M. Orlov: Modeling and simulation of single dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators. University of Notre Dame, Ph.D. thesis 2006.

S. Lemire, H. D. Vo: Reduction of fan and compressor wake defect using plasma actuation for tonal noise reduction. Journal of Turbomachinery, 133(2011)

S. Grundmann, M. Frey, C. Tropea: Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with plasma actuators for separation control. in 47th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting Including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition in Orlando Florida, 2009, p. 698.

F. Thomas, A. Kozlov, T. Corke: Plasma actuators for cylinder flow control and noise reduction. AIAA Journal, 46(2008), 1921-1931. CrossRef

Monique M. Hollick, Maziar Arjomandi, Benjamin S. Cazzolato: An investigation into the sensory application of DBD plasma actuators for pressure measurement. Sensors and Actuators A, 171(2011), 102-108. CrossRef

J. Huang, T. C. Corke, and F. O. Thomas: Unsteady Plasma Actuators for Separation Control of Low-PressureTurbine Blades. AIAA Journal, 44(2006), 1477-1487. CrossRef

S. C. Morris, T. C. Corke, D. VanNess, J. Stephens, T. Douvillev: Tip Clearance Control Using Plasma Actuators. AIAA-2005-782, 2005.

Young-Chang Cho, Wei Shyy: Adaptive flow control of low-Reynolds number aerodynamics using dielectric barrier discharge actuator. Progress in Aerospace Sciences, 47(2011) 495-521. CrossRef

E. Matlis, T. Corke, S. Gogineni: A. C. plasma anemometer for hypersonic Mach number experiments. AIAA, pp. 2005-0952, 2005.

T. Abe, Y. Takizawa, S. Sato: A parametric experimental study for momentum transfer by plasma actuator. AIAA Journal, pp. 2007-0187, 2007.

N. Benard, N. Balcon, E. Moreau, "Electric wind produced by a surface dielectric barrier discharge operating in air at different pressures: Aeronautical control insights. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 41(2008), 042002 CrossRef

P. Versailles, V. Gingras-Gosselin, V. Duc: Impact of pressure and temperature on the performance of plasma actuators. AIAA Journal, 48(2009), 859-863. CrossRef

B. Chartier, M. Arjomandi, B. Cazzolato: An investigation on the application of DBD plasma actuators as pressure sensors. AIAA Proceedings, p. 092407, 2009.

Timothy G. Nichols, Joshua L. Rovey: Fundamental Processes of DBD Plasma Actuators Operating at High Altitude. in 50th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition, Nashville, Tennessee, 09 - 12 January 2012, pp. AIAA 2012-0822.

Joseph A. Valerioti, "Pressure Dependence of Plasma Actuated Flow Control," University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana, Mater thesis 2010.

James W. Gregory, C. Lon Enloe, Gabriel I. Font, Thomas E. McLaughlin: Force Production Mechanisms of a Dielectric-Barrier Discharge Plasma Actuator. in 45th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit AIAA 2007-185, Reno, Nevada, 8-11 January 2007.

N. Benard, E. Moreau: Effects of Altitude on the Electromechanical Characteristics of Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Actuators. AIAA-2010-4633, 2010.

G. I. Font et al., "Effects of Oxygen Content on the Behavior of the Dielectric Barrier Discharge Aerodynamic Plasma Actuator," AIAA-2010-545, 2010.

A Arnone, M. S. Liou, L. A. Povineli: Multigrid calculation of three-dimensional viscous cascade flow. NASA Technical Memorandum 10-5257 1991.

P. L. Roe: Approximate Riemann solver, parameters vectors and difference schemes. J. Comp. Phys., 43(1981)357-371. CrossRef

E. Toro, Riemann solvers and numerical methods for fluid dynamics. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1999.

D. C. Wilcox, Turbulence Modeling for CFD. 5354 Palm Drive, La Canada, California: DCW Industries, Inc., 1993.

K. Singh, S. Roy: Modeling plasma actuators with air chemistry for effective flow. J. Appl. Phys, vol. 101, 2007.

B. Jayaraman: Computational modeling of glow discharge-induced fluid dynamics. University of Florida, Ph.D. thesis 2006.

A. Likhanskii, M. Shneider, S. Macheret, and R. Miles: Modeling of dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators driven by repetitive nanosecond pulses. Physics of Plasmas, vol. 14, 2007.

Xueke Che, Tao Shao, Wansheng Nie, Ping Yan: Numerical simulation on a nanosecond-pulse surface dielectric barrier discharge actuator in near space. J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 45(2012), 145201.

W. Shyy, B. Jayaraman, A. Andersson: Modeling of glow discharge-induced fluid. J. Appl. Phys., 92(2002), 6434-6443. CrossRef

B. E. Mertz: refinement, validation, and implementation of lumped circuit element model for single dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators. University of Notre Dame, Ph.D. thesis 2010.

Y. B. Suzen P. G. Huang: Simulations of Flow Separation Control using Plasma Actuators. Reno, Nevada, 9-12 January 2006, p. 44th AIM Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit.

Y. B. Suzen, P. G. Huang, J. D. Jacob, D. E. Ashpis: Numerical Simulations of Plasma Based Flow Control Applications. in 35th Fluid Dynamics Conference and Exhibit AIAA, AIAA 2005-4633, Toronto, Ontario, June 6-9, 2005, p. 4633.

C. L., McLaughlin, T. E., VanDyken, R. D., Kachner, K. D., Jumper, E. J., Corke, T. C., Post, M. Haddad, O. Enloe: Mechanisms and Responses of a Single Dielectric Barrier Plasma Actuator: Geometric Effects. AIM Journal, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 595-604, March 2004.

Trancossi, M. and Dumas, A., "A. C. H. E. O. N.: Aerial Coanda High Efficiency Orienting-jetNozzle," SAE Technical Paper 2011-01-2737, 2011, doi:10.4271/2011-01-2737.

Newman, B. G., The Deflexion of Plane Jets by Adjacent Boundaries, in Coanda Effect, Boundary Layer andFlow Control, edited by G. V. Lachmann, Vol. 1, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1961, pp. 232-264.

Saeed, B., Gratton, G., and Mares, C., "A Feasibility Assessment of Annular Winged VTOL Flight Vehicles,"The Aeronautical Journal, 115:683-692, 2011.

Trancossi, M., "An Overview of Scientific and Technical Literature on Coanda Effect Applied to Nozzles,"SAE Technical Paper 2011-01-2591, 2011, doi:10.4271/2011-01-2591.

Pascoa J., Dumas A. and others, A review of thrust-vectoring in support of a V/STOL non-moving mechanical propulsion system, Central European Journal of Engineering, Volume 3, Issue 3, pp 374-388, 2013.

Trancossi, M. and Dumas, A., "Coanda Synthetic Jet Deflection Apparatus and Control," SAE Technical Paper 2011-01-2590, 2011, doi:10.4271/2011-01-2590.

Trancossi M., Subhash M., Angeli D., "Mathematical modelling of a two streams Coanda effect nozzle" -ASME International Mechanical Engineering Conference and Exhibition, paper n. IMECE2013-63459, 2013.

Subhash, M. and Dumas, A., "Computational Study of Coanda Adhesion Over Curved Surface," SAE paper no:2013-01-2302 (in press).

Suñol, D. Vucinic, M. A. Bidakhvidi, S. Vanlanduit CFD MODELING OF THE COANDA BASED THRUST VECTORING NOZZLE, ACEX-2013, Madrid, Spain VV.AA., Fluent 6.3 and Gambit User manual, 2008.

Patankar, S. V., "Numerical Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow," Hemisphere, Washington, DC, 1980.

Schlichting, H., Gersten, K., and others, "Boundary-Layer Theory" 8th edition Springer 2004

Yoshitani, N., Hashimoto, S-I., Kimura, T., Motohashi, K., Ueno, S., " Flight Control Simulators for Unmanned Fixed-Wing and VTOL Aircraft", ICROS-SICE International Joint Conference 2009, August 18-21, 2009, Fukuoka International Congress Center, Japan.

Hennissen, J., Temmerman, W., Berghmans, J., and Allaert., K. "Modelling of Axial Fans for Electric Equipment". EUROTHERM SEM. no. 45, 1995.

Ilieva G., Páscoa J. C., Dumas A., Trancossi M. (2012), "A critical review of propulsion concepts for modern airships", Central European Journal of Engineering, Vol. 2(2), pp. 189-200, DOI:10.2478/s13531-011-0070-1.

Páscoa J. C., Mendes A. C., Gato L. M. C. (2009), "A fast iterative inverse method for turbomachinery blade design", Mechanics Research Communications, Vol. 36(5), pp. 537-546. CrossRef

Trancossi, M., Madonia, M., "The Efficiency of an Electric Turbofan vs. Inlet Area: A Simple Mathematical Model and CFD Simulations," SAE Technical Paper 2012-01-2217, 2012, doi:10.4271/2012-01-2217.

M. Trancossi, "An Overview of Scientific and Technical Literature on Coanda Effect Applied to Nozzles," SAE Technical Paper 2011-01-2591, 2011, doi:10.4271/2011-01-2591.

M. Trancossi, and A. Dumas, "Coanda Synthetic Jet Deflection Apparatus and Control," SAE Technical Paper 2011-01-2590, 2011, doi:10.4271/2011-01-2590.

J. C. Páscoa, A. Dumas, M. Trancossi, P. Stewart, D. Vucinic, "A review of thrust-vectoring in support of a V/STOL non-moving mechanical propulsion system", Central European Journal of Engineering, September 2013, vol. 3, Issue 3, pp 374-388, doi: 10.2478/s13531-013-0114-9.

M. Trancossi, S. Maharshi, D. Fregni, "Mathematical modelling of a two streams Coanda effect nozzle", SAE International Journal of Aerospace, Vol. 6, No.1: September 2013.

Subhash, M. and Dumas, A., "Computational Study of Coanda Adhesion Over Curved Surface", SAE International Journal of Aerospace, Vol. 6, No.1: September 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-2302.

M. Trancossi, A. Dumas, D. Vucinic, "Mathematical Modeling of Coanda Effect", Paper No: 2013-01-2195, SAE International Journal of Aerospace, Vol. 6, No.1: September 2013.

M. Trancossi; J. Pascoa, "ThermoJet an Old Concept Which Can Prelude a Future Green Air Transport", Paper No: 2013-01-2205, SAE International Journal of Aerospace, Vol. 6, No.1: September 2013.

F. Grimaccia, "Regulatory and standardization for unconventional aircraft in light UAV segment", Paper Number: 2013-01-2103, SAE International Journal of Aerospace, Vol. 6, No.1: September 2013.

Trancossi M., Subhash M. Angeli D., Mathematical modelling of a two Streams Coanda effect Nozzle, Proceedings of IMECE2013, IMECE2013-63459, to be published ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, November 15-21, San Diego, California, USA.

A. Dumas, M. Trancossi, S.Maharshi, J. M. Pascoa, "The Influence of Surface temperature on Coanda Surface", Energy Procedia (An Elsevier Journal).

B. Saeed, G. Gratton, and C. Mares, "A feasibility assessment of annular winged VTOL flight vehicles," The Aeronautical Journal, vol. 115, pp. 683-692, 2011.

AGARD, "V/STOL handling i-criteria and discussion," Tech. Rep. AGARD-R-577-70, Advisory Group for Aerospace Research & Development, 1970.

E. MORALEZ, V. MERRICK, and J. SCHROEDER, "Simulation evaluation of an advanced control concept for a V/STOL aircraft," journal of Guidance Control and Dynamics, vol. 12, pp. 334-341, 1989. CrossRef

R. Naldi and L. Marconi, "Optimal transition maneuvers for a class of V/STOL aircraft," Automatica, vol. 47, pp. 870-879, 2011. CrossRef

P. Strykowski and A. Krothapalli, "An experimental investigation of active control of thrust vectoring nozzle flow fields," tech. rep., The University of Minnesota, 1993.

M. Mason and W. Crowther, "Fluidic thrust vectoring of low observable aircraft," in CEAS Aerospace Aerodynamic Research Conference, pp. 1-7, 2002.

D. Wing, "Static investigation of two fluidic thrust-vectoring concepts on a two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle," Tech. Rep. TM-4574, NASA Langley Research Center, 1994.

M. Abdollahzadeh, J. Páscoa, P. J. Oliveira, Numerical investigation on efficiency increase in high altitude propulsion systems using plasma actuators, in: ECCOMAS European Congress on Computational Methods in Applied Sciences and Engineering, 2012, pp. 6563-6581.


Copyright (c) 2016 The International Journal of Multiphysics