Review of Low-Temperature Crack (LTC) Developments in Asphalt Pavements

T Ahmad, H Khawaja

Abstract


The article presents a review of low-temperature crack (LTC) developments in asphalt pavements commonly observed in regions affected by cold weather. The cold weather contributes significantly towards the development of these low-temperature cracks (LTCs). Since the 1960s, many studies have been published, proposing various cracking mechanisms. The simplistic reason for the development of cracks in low temperatures is thermal stresses, due to contractions and a drop in the pavement’s strength. However, other factors such as frost action also play a significant role. The impact of frost action on LTCs depends on the type of soil and water/moisture content. In addition to frost action, other factors also contribute directly or indirectly to the development of cracks. A comprehensive review of various types of cracks and their mechanism of development is given in the article. It is concluded that, to develop remedies, it is vital to understand the types of cracks.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Jamal, H. What are Road Cracks? How they are Formed. 2017 [cited 2017 September 2017]; Available from: https://www.aboutcivil.org/road-cracks-types-factors.html.

Waalkes, S.M., Cold Weather & Concrete Pavements: Troubleshooting & Tips to Assure, in Annual Conference of the Transportation Association of Canada. 2003: St. John’s, Newfoundland and Labrador

Voigt, G.F. Early cracking of concrete pavement-causes and repairs. in 2002 Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Airport Technology Transfer Conference. 2002. Citeseer.

Ksaibati, K. and R.J. Erickson, Evaluation of Low Temperature Cracking in Asphalt Pavement Mixes. 1998, Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering, University of Wyoming.

Liu, J., et al., Low temperature cracking analysis of asphalt binders and mixtures. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 2017. 141: p. 78-85. Crossref

Aschenbrener, T., Investigation of low temperature thermal cracking in hot mix asphalt. 1995, Colorado Department of Transportation.

Scherocman, J.A., International State-of-the-Art Colloquium on Low-Temperature Asphalt Pavement Cracking. NASA STI/Recon Technical Report N, 1991. 91.

Zubeck, H. and T. Vinson, Prediction of low-temperature cracking of asphalt concrete mixtures with thermal stress restrained specimen test results. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1996(1545): p. 50-58. Crossref

Doré, G. and H.K. Zubeck, Cold regions pavement engineering. 2009: ASCE Press.

Marasteanu, M., et al., Investigation of low temperature cracking in asphalt pavements national pooled fund study 776. 2007.

Kim, S.S., Development of an asphalt binder cracking device. 2007: IDEA Program, Transportation Research Board.

McHattie, R. and B. Conner, Pavement structure evaluation of Alaskan highways. 1980, Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities.

Li, X. and M. Marasteanu, Evaluation of the low temperature fracture resistance of asphalt mixtures using the semi circular bend test (with discussion). Journal of the Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists, 2004. 73.

Rosales, A., Fracture energy method for determining stiffness in polymer modified asphalt binders using the single edge notched beam. McNair Scholars Research Journal, 2011. 7(1): p. 15.

Raad, L., et al., Low Temperature Cracking of Modified AC Mixes in Alaska. Volume 1: Final Report; Volume 2: Appendix A; and Volume 3: Appendices BH 1997.

Marasteanu, M.O., et al., Low Temperature Cracking of Asphalt Concrete Pavement. 2004, Minnesota Department of Transportation.

Liu, J., et al., Evaluation of Precut Transverse Cracks for an Asphalt Concrete Pavement in Interior Alaska (Moose Creek–Richardson Highway). 2015, Report.

Marasteanu, M., et al., Investigation of low temperature cracking in asphalt pavements national pooled fund study–phase II. 2012.

Dave, E.V., S. Leon, and K. Park. Thermal cracking prediction model and software for asphalt pavements. in Transportation and Development Institute Congress 2011: Integrated Transportation and Development for a Better Tomorrow. 2011.

Monismith, C.L., G. Secor, and K.E. Secor. Temperature induced stresses and deformations in asphalt concrete. in Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists Proceedings. 1965.

Anderson, K., B. Shields, and J. Dacyszyn. Cracking of Asphalt Pavements Due to Thermal Effects. in Proceedings, Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists. 1966.

Hills, J. and D. Brien. The fracture of bitumens and asphalt mixes by temperature induced stresses. in Proceedings of the Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists. 1966.

Monismith, C.L. Non-traffic Load Associated Cracking of Asphalt Pavements: Symposium. 1966. Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists.

Littlefield, G. Thermal Expansion and Contraction Characteristics-Utah Asphalt Concretes. in Assoc Asphalt Paving Technol Proc. 1967.

Anderson, K. and W. Hahn. Design and evaluation of asphalt concrete with respect to thermal cracking. in Assoc Asphalt Paving Technol Proc. 1968.

Haas, R., et al. A Design Subsystem for the Response of Flexible Pavements at Low Temperatures. in Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists Proc. 1969.

Burgess, R., et al. Ste. Anne Test Road-Relationships between Predicted Fracture Temperatures and Low Temperature Field Performance with Dicussion and Closure. in Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists Proc. 1971.

Haas, R., A method for designing asphalt pavements to minimize low-temperature shrinkage cracking. 1973: Asphalt Institute.

Shahin, M.Y. and B.F. McCullough, Damage model for predicting temperature cracking in flexible pavements. 1974: Transportation Research Board.

Gaw, W., Design Techniques to Minimize Low-Temperature Asphalt Pavement Transverse Cracking. 1981, Asphalt Institute. Research Report.

Ruth, B., L. Bloy, and A. Avital. Prediction of Pavement Cracking at Low Temperatures (with Discussion). in Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists Proceedings. 1982.

Kallas, B.F., Low-temperature mechanical properties of asphalt concrete. 1982, Asphalt Institute.

Anderson, K. Development of a Method to Evaluate the Low Temperature Tensile Properties of Asphalt Concrete. in Canadian Technical Asphalt Association. 1986.

Haas, R., et al. A Comprehensive Study of Cold Climate Airport Pavement Cracking (with Discussion). in Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists Proc. 1987.

Scherocman, J.A., International State-of-the-Art Colloquium on Low-Temperature Asphalt Pavement Cracking. 1991: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.

Lebens, M.A. and B. Troyer, Porous asphalt pavement performance in cold regions. 2012, Minnesota Department of Transportation, Research Services.

Asphalt-Institute, Superpave Mix Design. 2001: Asphalt Institute.

Association, A.C.P., Subgrades and subbases for concrete pavements. Concrete Paving Technology, TB011. P, 1995. 2.

Yoder, E.J. and M.W. Witczak, Principles of pavement design. 1975: John Wiley & Sons.

Berg, R.L. and E.A. Wright. Frost action and its control. 1984. ASCE.

Miller, J.S. and W.Y. Bellinger, Distress identification manual for the long-term pavement performance program. 2003.

Striping, R.L. 5 Common Causes of Damaged and Cracked Asphalt: How to Prevent Damage. 2017 [cited 2017 September 5, 2017]; Available from: https://randazzoline.com/5-common-causes-damaged-cracked-asphalt-prevent-damage.

Adlinge, S.S. and A. Gupta, Pavement deterioration and its causes. International Journal of Innovative Research and Development, 2013. 2(4): p. 437-450.

Cornell Local Roads Program, C.U. Those Cracks on the Edge of the Road…What Causes Them? 2008 [cited 2017 September 10, 2017]; Available from: http://www.clrp.cornell.edu/nuggets_and_nibbles/articles/2008/cracks.html.

i am civil engineer. things-you-should-know-about-rutting. 2014 24 October 2017]; Available from: https://www.iamcivilengineer.com/2014/01/things-you-should-know-about-rutting.html.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21152/1750-9548.12.2.169

Copyright (c) 2018 T Ahmad, H Khawaja

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.