Directions in Radiation Transport Modelling

P Nicholas Smith, C Pain, A Buchan, S Dargaville, J Lillington

Abstract


Radiation transport modelling has come a long way in the last 50 years: 2D models have been replaced by 3D models; multi-group energy schemes have been replaced by continuous energy nuclear data representations in Monte Carlo models; accurate 3D geometrical representations are available, including import from CAD files.

More exciting advances are on the horizon to increase the power of simulation tools. The advent of high performance computers is allowing bigger, higher fidelity models to be created, if the challenges of parallelization and memory management can be met. 3D whole core transport modelling is becoming possible. Uncertainty quantification is improving with large benefits to be gained from more accurate, less pessimistic estimates of uncertainty. Advanced graphical displays allow the user to assimilate and make sense of the vast amounts of data produced by modern modelling tools. Numerical solvers are being developed that use goal-based adaptivity to adjust the nodalisation of the system to provide the optimum scheme to achieve the user requested accuracy on the results, thus removing the need to perform costly convergence studies in space and angle etc. More use is being made of multi-physics methods in which radiation transport is coupled with other phenomena, such as thermal-hydraulics, structural response, fuel performance and/or chemistry in order to better understand their interplay in reactor cores.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Askew JR, Fayers FJ, Kemshell PB. A general description of the lattice code WIMS. Journal of the British Nuclear Energy Society, October 1966.

USNRC TTC, Nuclear Criticality Safety, Module 3.0 Nuclear Theory, 0905, Rev. 3.

Azmy Y, Satori E. “Nuclear Computational Science: A Century in Review”. Springer 2010.

Richards SD, Baker CMJ, Bird AJ, Cowan P, Davies N, Dobson GP, et al. MONK and MCBEND: Current Status and recent developments. Annals of Nuclear Energy, 2015, 82, 63-73. CrossRef

Smith PN, Lillington JN, Middlemas CA. Radiation Transport Modelling and the ANSWERS Code Suite. Nuclear Future, 2011, 2 (2), 44-49.

Lillington JN, Hosking JG, Smith PJ, Smith PN. ANSWERS Computer Codes V & V for Novel Reactor Applications. Nuclear Future, 2015.

Lindley BA, Newton TD, Hosking JG, Smith PN, Powney DJ, Tollit B, et al. Release of WIMS10: A Versatile Reactor Physics Code for Thermal and Fast Systems. Proc ICAPP 2015, Nice, 3-6 May, 2015.

Long D, Richards S, Smith PN, Baker C, Bird A, Davies N, et al. MONK10: A Monte Carlo Code for Criticality Analysis. Proc. ICNC 2015, Charlotte, 13-17 September 2015.

International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) [Internet]. [Place unknown]: NEA; [Date unknown]. Available from: https://www.oecd-nea.org/science/wpncs/icsbep

International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation (IRPhE) Project [Internet]. [Place unknown]: NEA; [Date unknown]. Available from: https://www.oecd-nea.org/science/wprs/irphe/

Database of measured isotopic concentrations of spent nuclear fuel, with operational histories and design data [Internet]. [Place unknown]: NEA; [Date unknown]. Available from: https://www.oecd-nea.org/sfcompo/

Shielding Integral Benchmark Archive and Database (SINBAD) [Internet]. [Place unknown]: NEA; [Date unknown]. Available from: https://www.oecd-nea.org/science/wprs/shielding/sinbad/

Kodeli I, Sartori E, Kirk B. SINBAD Shielding Benchmark Experiments Status and Planned Activities. ANS 14th Biennial Topical Meeting of the Radiation Protection and Shielding Division, 2006, Carlsbad NM, USA. 3-6 April, 2006.

Powney DJ, Newton TD. Overview of WIMS9 Resonance Treatment, ANSWERS/WIMS/TR.26, Issue 1, 2004.

Knight M, Bryce P, Hall S. WIMS/PANTHER Analysis of UO2/MOX Cores using Embedded Supercells. Proc. PHYSOR 2012, Knoxville, 15-20 April, 2012.

Woodcock ER, et al. Techniques Used in the GEM Code for Monte Carlo Neutronics Calculations in Reactors and Other Systems of Complex Geometry. ANL-7050, 1965, Argonne National Laboratory.

Brissenden RJ, Garlick AR. Biases in the Estimation of Keff and its Error by Monte Carlo Methods. Ann nucl Energy, 1986, 13 (2), 63-83. CrossRef

Brown FB. Wielandt Acceleration for MCNP5 Monte Carlo Eigenvalue Calculations. Proc. Math. & Comp. Topical Meeting, 2007, Monterey.

Rabenseifner R, Hager G, Jost G. Hybrid MPI/OpenMP Parallel Programming on Clusters of Multi-Core SMP Nodes. Proc. 17th Euromicro International Conference on Parallel, Distributed and Network-based Processing, 18-20 Feb 2009, 427-436.

Bank R, Holst M, Widlund O, Xu J, editors. Domain Decomposition Methods in Science and Engineering XX, Springer 2013

Cardellini V, Fanfarillo A, Filippone S, Rouson D. Hybrid Coarrays: a PGAS Feature for Many-Core Architectures. Proc. Int. Conf. Parallel Computing – ParCo 2015, Edinburgh, September 2015.

Firedrake [Internet]. [Place unknown]: [Publisher unknown]; [Date unknown]. Available from: www.firedrakeproject.org/

OP2 [Internet]. [Place unknown]: Oxford e-Research Centre; [Date unknown]. Available from: http://www.oerc.ox.ac.uk/projects/op2

Hutton RM, Smith AG, Hickmott S. The computation of turbulent flows of industrial complexity by the finite element method - Progress and prospects, Int. J. Numer. Methods Fluids, 1987, 7(11):1277–1298. CrossRef

Palmer I, Rossiter G, White RJ. Development and Validation of the ENIGMA Code for MOX Fuel Performance Modelling. IAEA-SM-358/20, 1999, International symposium on MOX fuel cycle technologies for medium and long term deployment; Vienna (Austria); 17-21 May 1999.

Gonzales MDU, Norfolk DJ. Effect of Surfaces on AGR Coolant Chemistry: Critical Assessment of Gas-Phase Rate Constants Relevant to Ethane Pyrolysis., CEGB-TPRD/B-1060/R88, 1988.

Hutt PK, Gaines N, Halsall MJ, McEllin M, White RJ. UK Core Performance Code Package. Nuclear Energy, 1991, 30(5), 291-298. CrossRef

Shepherd M, Davies N, Richards S, Smith PN, Philpott W, Baker C, et al. MONK10 Burnup Credit Capability. Proc. ICNC 2015, Charlotte, USA, Sep 13-17 2015.

Pain CC, de Oliveira CRE, Goddard AJH, Umpleby AP. Non-linearspace-dependent kinetics for the criticality assessment of fissile solutions. Progress in Nuclear Energy, 2001, 39 (1), 53-114. CrossRef

de Oliveira CRE. An arbitrary geometry finite element method for multigroup neutron transport with anisotropic scattering. Progress in Nuclear Energy, 1986, 18, 227.

Pain CC, de Oliveira CRE, Goddard AJH, Umpleby AP. Transient criticality in fissile solutions - compressibility effects. Nuclear Science Engineering, 2001, 138, 78-95. CrossRef

Buchan AG, Pain CC, Tollit BS, Gomes JLMA, Eaton MD, Gorman GJ, et al. Simulated spatially dependent transient kinetics analysis of the Oak Ridge Y12 plant criticality excursion. Progress in Nuclear Energy, 2013, 63, 12-21. CrossRef

Smith PN, Tollit B, Matthews B, Pain C, Buchan A. Point Kinetics and Coupled Neutron Transport-CFD Modelling of Criticality Excursions in Fissile Solutions. Proc. ICNC 2015, Charlotte, USA, Sep 13-17 2015.

Xiang J, Munjiza A, Latham JP. Finite strain, finite rotation quadratic tetrahedral element for combined finite-discrete method. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 2009, 79, 946-978. CrossRef

Dissemination [Internet]. [Place unknown]: [Publisher unknown]; [Date unknown]. Available from: http://www.nuresafe.eu/include/tree/tree.php?file='NURESAFE/Dissemination

SALOME [Internet]. [Place unknown]: [Publisher unknown]; [Date unknown]. Available from: http://www.salome-platform.org/

CASL [Internet]. [Place unknown]: [Publisher unknown]; [Date unknown]. Available from: http://www.casl.gov/

Gaston DR, et al. Physics-based multiscale coupling for full core nuclear reactor simulation. Annals of Nuclear Energy, 2015, 84, 45-54. CrossRef

Expert Group on Multi-physics Experimental Data, Benchmarks and Validation (EGMPEBV) [Internet]. [Place unknown]: NEA; [Date unknown]. Available from: https://www.oecd-nea.org/science/egmpebv/

memphis multiphase [Internet]. [Place unknown]: [Publisher unknown]; [Date unknown]. Available from: http://www.memphis-multiphase.org/

Data Science Institute [Internet]. [Place unknown]: [Publisher unknown]; [Date unknown]. Available from: https://www.imperial.ac.uk/data-science/

Baker C, Smith PN, Mason R, Shepherd M, Richards S, Hiles R, et al. Calculating Uncertainty on K-effective with MONK10. Proc. ICNC 2015, Charlotte, 13-17 Sep 2015, 1073-1082.

Cacuci DG. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. Volume 1: Theory, CRC Press, 2003. CrossRef

Ayres D, Eaton MD. Uncertainty quantification in nuclear criticality modelling using a high dimensional model representation. Annals of Nuclear Energy, 2015, 80, 379-402. CrossRef

WPNCS Expert Group on Uncertainty Analysis for Criticality Safety Assessment (UACSA) [Internet]. [Place unknown]: NEA; [Date unknown]. Available from: https://www.oecd-nea.org/science/wpncs/UACSA/

WPRS Expert Group on Uncertainty Analysis in Modelling (EGUAM) [Internet]. [Place unknown]: NEA; [Date unknown]. Available from: https://www.oecd-nea.org/science/wprs/eguam/

Hoefer A, Buss O, Schmidt M, Porsch D. MOCABA: A general Monte Carlo – Bayes procedure for improved predictions of integral functions of nuclear data. Proc. PHYSOR, 2014, Kyoto Japan, 28 Sep – 3 Oct. CrossRef

Angelo PL, Hollenbach DF, Baker JE. Considerations for the Application of Artificial Neural Networks to Criticality Code Validation. Proc. ICNC 2015, Charlotte, USA, 14-18 Sep 2015.

Salvatores M, Palmiotti G, McKnight RD. Methods and Issues for the combined use of Integral Experiments and Covariance data. NEA/NSC/WPEC/DOC(2013)445, 2013.

Cacuci DG, Navon IM, Ionescu-Bujor M. Computational Methods for Data Evaluation and Assimilation. CRC Press, 2013. CrossRef

Dyrda JP. Development of Benchmarks for Historical UK IEU Criticality Experiments and Analysis Using a Kalman Filter Data Assimilation Technique, Imperial College Engineering Doctorate thesis, January 2013.

Marshall WJ, Williams ML, Wiarda D, Rearden BT, Dunn ME, Mueller DE, et al. Development and Testing of Neutron Cross-section Covariance Data for SCALE 6.2. Proc. ICNC 2015, Charlotte, 14-18 Sep 2015.

Data Assimilation Lab [Internet]. [Place unknown]: [Publisher unknown]; [Date unknown]. Available from: https://www.imperial.ac.uk/data-science/research/data-assimilation-lab/

Goffin MA, Baker CMJ, Buchan AG, Pain CC, Eaton MD, Smith PN. Minimising the error in eigenvalue calculations involving the Boltzmann transport equation using goal-based adaptivity on unstructured meshes. J. Computational Physics, 2013, 242, 726-752. CrossRef

Goffin MA, Buchan AG, Belme AC, Pain CC, Eaton MD, Smith PN, et al. Goal-based angular adaptivity applied to spherical harmonics discretisation of the neutral particle transport equation. Annals of Nuclear Energy, 2014, 71, 60-80. CrossRef

Sanchez R, McCormick NI. A Review of Neutron Transport Approximations. Nuclear Science and Engineering, 1982, 80,481-535. CrossRef

Burrus CS, Gopinath RA, Guo H. Introduction to Wavelets and Wavelet Transforms, a Primer. Prentice Hall, 1998. CrossRef

Buchan AG, Pain CC, Eaton MD, Goddard AJH, et al. Linear and quadratic hexahedral wavelets on the sphere for angular discretizations of the Boltzmann transport equation. Nuclear Science and Engineering, 2008, 159, 127-152. CrossRef

Goffin MA, Goal-based adaptive methods applied to the spatial and angular dimensions of the transport equation, Engineering Doctorate thesis, Imperial College London, 2014.

Goffin MA, Buchan AG, Dargaville S, Pain CC, Smith PN, Smedley-Stevensen R. Goal-based angular adaptivity applied to a wavelet-based discretisation of the neutral particle transport equation. J. Computational Physics, 2015, 281, 1032-1062. CrossRef

Xiao D, Fang F, Pain C, Hu G. Non-intrusive reduced-order modelling of the Navier–Stokes equations based on RBF interpolation. Int. J. Numer. Meth. Fluids, 2015, 79, 580–595. CrossRef

Xiao D, Fang F, Pain CC, Navon IM, Salinas P. Non-intrusive reduced-order modelling of multi-phase flow in porous media using the POD- RBF method, to be published.

Buchan AG, Calloo AA, Goffin MG, Dargaville S, Fang F, Pain CC, et al. A POD reduced order model for resolving angular direction in neutron/photon transport problems. J Comp Phys, 2015, 296, 138-157.

Picton DJ. MCBEND Diffusion Solution, ANSWERS seminar presentation, 2007, Bournemouth, 22-24 May 2007.

Dobson GP. Partnering Deterministic & Monte Carlo Calculations, ANSWERS seminar presentation, 2015, Poole, 19-21 May 2015.

Miller PC, Wright G A, Boyle CB, Power SW. The use of an inbuilt importance generator for acceleration of the Monte Carlo code MCBEND. Proc. PHYSOR90, 1990, Marseille, France, 23-27 April 1990.

Carney SE, Brown FB, Kiedrowski BC, Martin WR. Fission Matrix Capability for MCNP Monte Carlo. LA-UR-12-24533, 2012.

Lee MJ, Joo HG, Lee D, Smith K. Coarse mesh finite difference formulation for accelerated Monte Carlo eigenvalue calculation. Annals of Nuclear Energy, 2014, 65, 101-113. CrossRef

Griesheimer DP, Martin WR, Holloway JP. Convergence properties of Monte Carlo functional expension tallies. J. Comp. Phys, 2006, 211, 129-153. CrossRef

Graham IG, Kuo FY, Nuyens D, Scheichl R, Sloan I H. Quasi-Monte Carlo methods for elliptic PDEs with random coefficients and applications. Journal of Computational Physics, 2011, 230 (10). 3668-3694. CrossRef

Dargaville S, Goffin MA, Buchan AG, Pain CC, Smedley-Stevenson RP, Smith PN, et al. Solving the Boltzmann transport equation with multigrid and adaptive space/angle discretisations. Annals of Nuclear Energy, 2015, 86, 99-107. CrossRef

Cliffe KA,·Giles MB, Scheichl R, Teckentrup AL. Multilevel Monte Carlo methods and applications to elliptic PDEs with random coefficients. Comput Visual Sci, 2011, 14, 3–15. CrossRef




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21152/1750-9548.10.4.355

Copyright (c) 2016 The International Journal of Multiphysics